Change your preferences any time. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. I want to fire off a function every 0. I'm not too knowledgeable of how Python threads work and am having difficulties with the python timer. However, I keep getting RuntimeError: threads can only be started once when I execute threading. Is there a work around for this?
I tried applying threading. The best way is to start the timer thread once. Inside your timer thread you'd code the following. In the code that started the timer, you can then set the stopped event to stop the timer.
Or here's the same functionality but as a standalone function instead of a decorator :. Here's how to do it without using threads.
Improving a little on Hans Then's answerwe can just subclass the Timer function. The following becomes our entire "repeat timer" code, and it can be used as a drop-in replacement for threading. Timer with all the same arguments:. In the interest of providing a correct answer using Timer as the OP requested, I'll improve upon swapnil jariwala's answer :.
I had to do this for a project. What I ended up doing was start a separate thread for the function. So when I start the thread the function will repeatedly wait 5 seconds, run all of my code, and do that indefinitely.
Python DateTime, TimeDelta, Strftime(Format) with Examples
If you want to kill the process just kill the thread. Here is small sample, it will help beter understanding how it runs. I like right2clicky's answer, especially in that it doesn't require a Thread to be torn down and a new one created every time the Timer ticks. In addition, it's an easy override to create a class with a timer callback that gets called periodically.
That's my normal use case:. This is an alternate implementation using function instead of class. Inspired by Andrew Wilkins above. Learn more. Python threading. Asked 7 years, 7 months ago. Active 2 months ago. Viewed k times. Active Oldest Votes. Kyle Kelley Hans Then Hans Then 9, 2 2 gold badges 28 28 silver badges 49 49 bronze badges. Then it will finish it's sleep and stop afterwards. There is no way to forcibly suspend a thread in python.This module provides a simple way to time small bits of Python code.
It has both a Command-Line Interface as well as a callable one. It avoids a number of common traps for measuring execution times. The following example shows how the Command-Line Interface can be used to compare three different expressions:. This can be achieved from the Python Interface with:. A callable can also be passed from the Python Interface :. Note however that timeit will automatically determine the number of repetitions only when the command-line interface is used.
In the Examples section you can find more advanced examples. Create a Timer instance with the given statement, setup code and timer function and run its timeit method with number executions. The optional globals argument specifies a namespace in which to execute the code. Changed in version 3. Create a Timer instance with the given statement, setup code and timer function and run its repeat method with the given repeat count and number executions.
The default timer, which is always time. The constructor takes a statement to be timed, an additional statement used for setup, and a timer function. Both statements default to 'pass' ; the timer function is platform-dependent see the module doc string. To measure the execution time of the first statement, use the timeit method. The repeat and autorange methods are convenience methods to call timeit multiple times.
The stmt and setup parameters can also take objects that are callable without arguments. This will embed calls to them in a timer function that will then be executed by timeit.
Note that the timing overhead is a little larger in this case because of the extra function calls. Time number executions of the main statement. This executes the setup statement once, and then returns the time it takes to execute the main statement a number of times, measured in seconds as a float. The argument is the number of times through the loop, defaulting to one million.
The main statement, the setup statement and the timer function to be used are passed to the constructor.This module provides various time-related functions. For related functionality, see also the datetime and calendar modules. Although this module is always available, not all functions are available on all platforms. Most of the functions defined in this module call platform C library functions with the same name.
It may sometimes be helpful to consult the platform documentation, because the semantics of these functions varies among platforms. The epoch is the point where the time starts, and is platform dependent. To find out what the epoch is on a given platform, look at time. The term seconds since the epoch refers to the total number of elapsed seconds since the epoch, typically excluding leap seconds. The functions in this module may not handle dates and times before the epoch or far in the future.
The cut-off point in the future is determined by the C library; for bit systems, it is typically in When 2-digit years are parsed, they are converted according to the POSIX and ISO C standards: values 69—99 are mapped to —, and values 0—68 are mapped to — DST is Daylight Saving Time, an adjustment of the timezone by usually one hour during part of the year.
DST rules are magic determined by local law and can change from year to year. The C library has a table containing the local rules often it is read from a system file for flexibility and is the only source of True Wisdom in this respect. The precision of the various real-time functions may be less than suggested by the units in which their value or argument is expressed.
On the other hand, the precision of time and sleep is better than their Unix equivalents: times are expressed as floating point numbers, time returns the most accurate time available using Unix gettimeofday where availableand sleep will accept a time with a nonzero fraction Unix select is used to implement this, where available.
The time value as returned by gmtimelocaltimeand strptimeand accepted by asctimemktime and strftimeis a sequence of 9 integers. The return values of gmtimelocaltimeand strptime also offer attribute names for individual fields. Changed in version 3. The day field is two characters long and is space padded if the day is a single digit, e.
How do I get the current time in Python?
If t is not provided, the current time as returned by localtime is used. Locale information is not used by asctime. Unlike the C function of the same name, asctime does not add a trailing newline. Use threading. Availability : Unix. Convert a time expressed in seconds since the epoch to a string of a form: 'Sun Jun 20 ' representing local time. If secs is not provided or Nonethe current time as returned by time is used.
Locale information is not used by ctime. Get information on the specified clock as a namespace object. Supported clock names and the corresponding functions to read their value are:. Refer to Clock ID Constants for possible values.
Fractions of a second are ignored. See calendar.In Python, date, time and datetime classes provides a number of function to deal with dates, times and time intervals.
Date and datetime are an object in Python, so when you manipulate them, you are actually manipulating objects and not string or timestamps. Whenever you manipulate dates or time, you need to import datetime function. The datetime classes in Python are categorized into main 5 classes. These import statements are pre-defined pieces of functionality in the Python library that let you manipulates dates and times, without writing any code.
Consider the following points before executing the datetime code from datetime import date This line tells the Python interpreter that from the datetime module import the date class We are not writing the code for this date functionality alas just importing it for our use Step 2 Next, we create an instance of the date object. Step 3 Next, we print the date and run the code. The output is as expected. Print Date using date.
It gives date along with time in hours, minutes, seconds and milliseconds. When we execute the code for datetime, it gives the output with current date and time. Suppose we want to print just the current time without the date. We will be assigning it the current value of time using datetime. And this will give me just the time. So let's run this program. Okay, so you can see that here I got the date and time. And then the next line, I've got just the time by itself Step 3 We will apply our weekday indexer to our weekday's arrayList to know which day is today Weekdays operator wd is assigned the number from number depending on what the current weekday is.
Here we declared the array of the list for days Mon, Tue, Wed…Sun. Use that index value to know which day it is. In our case, it is 2, and it represents Wednesday, so in the output it will print out "Which is a Wednesday. We will advance a step further and learn how to use a formatting function to format Time and Date. Step 1 First we will see a simple step of how to format the year. It is better to understand with an example. We used the " strftime function" for formatting.
This function uses different control code to give an output. The century of the year will not display as shown in the screenshot below Step 3 Strf function can declare the date, day, month and year separately.
Also with small changes in the control code in strftime function you can format the style of the text. Step 4 With the help of "Strftime" function we can also retrieve local system time, date or both. In other words, it is a timespan to predict any special day, date or time. Let's see an example to understand it better. Step 1 To run Timedelta Objects, you need to declare the import statement first and then execute the code Write import statement for timedelta Now write the code to print out object from time delta as shown in screen shot Run the code.This article will introduce you to a method of measuring the execution time of your python code snippets.
We will be using an in-built python library timeit. The module function timeit. Where the timeit. Note: Pay attention to the fact that the output is the execution time of number times iteration of the code snippet, not the single iteration.
For a single iteration exec. The program is pretty straight-forward. All we need to do is to pass the code as a string to the timeit. It is advisable to keep the import statements and other static pieces of code in setup argument. Example 2. Also, here I demonstrate two more features, timeit. As expected, we notice that execution time of binary search is significantly lower than linear search! Example 3 Finally, I demonstrate below how you can utilize the command line interface of timeit module:.
Here I explain each term individually:.
Python time clock() Method
So, this was a brief yet concise introduction to timeit module and its practical applications. Its a pretty handy tool for python programmers when they need a quick glance of the execution time of their code snippets. This article is contributed by Nikhil Kumar. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.
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Writing code in comment? Please use ide. This module provides a simple way to find the execution time of small bits of Python code.
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How do I call the function or what do I wrap it in so that if it takes longer than 5 seconds the script cancels it and does something else?
You may use the signal package if you are running on UNIX:. This raises an exception that you can intercept from the regular Python code. Note that since we raise an exception when timeout happens, it may end up caught and ignored inside the function, for example of one such function:. Here it is with a breakdown. Note that sleep will not always be interrupted by a keyboard interrupt, on Python 2 on Windows, e. I would avoid sleeping a thread more than a second, in any case - that's an eon in processor time.
I have a different proposal which is a pure function with the same API as the threading suggestion and seems to work fine based on suggestions on this thread. I ran across this thread when searching for a timeout call on unit tests.
I didn't find anything simple in the answers or 3rd party packages so I wrote the decorator below you can drop right into code:. I like the stopit. There are a lot of suggestions, but none using concurrent. We make a pool, submit a single process and then wait up to 5 seconds before raising a TimeoutError that you could catch and handle however you needed. If you want to terminate the Process on timeout I would suggest looking into Pebble.
Most of the solutions presented here work wunderfully under Linux on the first glance - because we have fork and signals - but on windows the things look a bit different. And when it comes to subthreads on Linux, You cant use Signals anymore. In order to spawn a process under Windows, it needs to be pickable - and many decorated functions or Class methods are not.
So You need to use a better pickler like dill and multiprocess not pickle and multiprocessing - thats why You cant use ProcessPoolExecutor or only with limited functionality.
For the timeout itself - You need to define what timeout means - because on Windows it will take considerable and not determinable time to spawn the process.
I've looked at the timeit module, but it seems it's only for small snippets of code. I want to time the whole program. I put this timing. I can also call timing. But just including import timing will print the start and end times, and overall elapsed time. Forgive my obscure secondsToStr function, it just formats a floating point number of seconds to hh:mm:ss.
Note: A Python 3 version of the above code can be found here or here. In Windows, see this StackOverflow question: How do I measure execution time of a command on the Windows command line? The documentation says "in any case, this is the function to use for benchmarking Python or timing algorithms". If you find this useful, you should still up-vote his answer instead of this one, as he did most of the work.
You can use the Python profiler cProfile to measure CPU time and additionally how much time is spent inside each function and how many times each function is called. This is very useful if you want to improve performance of your script without knowing where to start. It's always good to have a look in the documentation too. I like the output the datetime module provides, where time delta objects show days, hours, minutes, etc.
Sebastian mentioned, this approach might encounter some tricky cases with local time, so it's safer to use:. It returns in seconds and you can have your execution time.
It is simple, but you should write these in thew main function which starts program execution. If you want to get the execution time even when you get an error then take your parameter "Start" to it and calculate there like:.
Deprecated since version 3.